TUHAN DI ANTARA DESAKAN DAN KERUMUNAN: KOMODIFIKASI SPIRITUALITAS MAKKAH DI ERA KAPITALISASI

Al Makin

Abstract


Artikel ini ditulis berdasarkan data etnografi berupa catatan, observasi, pengalaman langsung penulis dan beberapa wawancara ritual umrah di Makkah tang gal 12-20 Maret, 2016. Tulisan ini berusaha memotret kota Makkah modern dari relasi antara perkembangan kota ini dan bagaimana pelaksanaan ritual umrah meliputi: tawaf, sai, dan kehidupan para peziarah di sana ketika penulis melaksanakan ibadah itu. Lebih jelasnya, penulis coba menilik pencarian Tuhan di tengah kerumuman manusia dalam kehidupan modern-postmodern dalam kesibukan kota Makkah sebagai pusat ritual dan sakralitas Muslim. Proses komodifikasi ibadah dengan berbagai motif dan latar belakang bisnis dan kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi terlihat jelas dalam ibadah umrah. Pencarian Tuhan dalam ritual ini tidak pada kondisi kesepian dan menyendiri, tetapi pencarian di tengah kerumunan kapitalisasi dan komersialisasi tempat-tempat utama Makkah di sekitar area Haram. Ritual umrah dan komodifikasi ritual di tengah pasar global menunjukkan menyatunya Islam dengan kapitalisme.

This article is written based on ethnographical notes, that is observation, and experience of  the writer during the performance of umrah (lesser pilgrimage) to Mecca March 12-20th, 2016. Firstly, this articles portrays the modern city of Mecca and its relation to the performance of umrah which includes tawaf (Ka’ba circumambulation), sai (running between Shofa and Marwa), and the way Muslims performed the rituals. This article describes the way Muslims sought for God amids crowded city with hundreds of people visiting the sacred sites of Kakbah, drinking water Zamzam, in the complex of Mosque Haram. The process of commodification of  the ritual of umrah amidts the booming business within the political, social, and economy contexts can be seen. In this regard, praying to God in the ritual is not necessarily in the quietness,but in the crowded process of capitalization and commercialization of places in the area of Haram of Mecaa. The umrah ritual and commodification of all related activities amid the global market demonstrates the unity of Islam and capitalism.


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