DAR AL-ISLAM, DAR AL-HARB, DAR AL-SHULH: Kajian Fikih Siyasah

Ahmad Muhtadi Anshor

Abstract


Konsep tentang pembagian wilayah menjadi dar al-Islam, dar al-harb dan dar al-shulh merupakan hasil ijtihad dari para fuqaha’ yang dipengaruhi oleh suasana politik. Yakni ketika kaum musyrikin Makkah, kaum musyrikin Jazirah Arab sampai pula kaum musyrikin Persia dan Romawi telah serentak memaklumkan perang terhadap Islam. Sedangkan orang Islam dalam keadaan selalu membela diri, sehingga ada dua kekuatan yang selalu berhadap-hadapan, yakni kekuatan Islam dan kekuatan musuh-musuhnya. Dalam realitanya, konsep tentang dar al-Islam dapat dilihat dalam kasus India dan Indonesia yang meskipun secara tegas menyatakan bahwa konstitusi negara tidak berdasarkan Islam, namun karena negara memberi kebebasan pada warganya untuk menjalankan ajaran agamanya, maka negara tersebut dapat dianggap sebagai dar al-Islam. Sedangkan untuk dar al-harb dapat dilihat pada kasus negara Persia dan Romawi pada masa awal perkembangan Islam. Dalam perspektif teori, konsep dar al-Islam, dar al-harb dan dar al-shulh dapat dibaca dengan “teori perang” dan “teori perdamaian”.

The concept of the division of the area into dar al-Islam, dar al-harb and dar al-shulh is the result of ijtihad of the jurists’ who are affected by the political atmosphere. That is when the polytheists of Mecca, Arabian Peninsula until Persian and Roman have simultaneously proclaim a war to Islam again. While the Moslems in the state has always defended himself, so that there are two forces that are always face to face, namely Islamic strength and power of his enemies. In reality, the concept of dar al-Islam may be seen in the case of India and Indonesia that although expressly states that the state constitution is not based on Islam, but because the state gives freedom to its citizen to live the teaching of his religion, then the country can be considered as dar al-Islam. While for the dar al-harb can be seen in the case of the Persian and Roman state during the early development of Islam. In theory perspective, the concept of dar al-Islam, dar al-harb and dar al-shulh can be read with the “theory of war” and “peace theory”.


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