Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman Vol 13 No 01 June 2018

How to Cite



Public activities carried out on social media may trigger religious identity based social riot. Such social unrest is observed to have surfaced initially as religious rage channeled via social media. It is, indeed, a fact that various issues on religion, which is regarded as sacred, hallowed, and revered, are discussed freely on social media, and it may very easily incite social turbulence. In the case of vihara burning and rioting in the city of Tanjung Balai, North Sumatera, Indonesia, a social riot was instigated by users of social media who mutually provoked resentment against one another, there was also the Budha statue which posed as a latent triggering factor threatening inter-religious relations within societal culture fond of congregating. This article discusses the case of vihara burning which had occurred in Tanjung Balai, North Sumatera, Indonesia, where in research data were acquired through in-depth interviews with several informants active on social media, community figures, and police personnel.


APJII, Infografis Panetrasi dan Prilaku Pengguna Internet di Indonesia, dalam, diakses pada 10 Januari 2017.

Badan Pusat Statistik Tanjung Balai, Buku Saku Statistik Tanjung Balai 2016, Tanjung Balai: BPS Kota Tanjung Balai, 2016.

Balai Litbang Agama Jakarta, Kekerasan Keagamaan di NAD, Sumatera dan Jawa Bagian Barat: Laporan Hasil Survei, Jakarta: Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Agama Jakarta, 2007.

Balai Litbang Agama Jakarta, Konflik Keagamaan di Wilayah Banten: Laporan Hasil Studi Insiden Konflik Keagamaan Berbasis Harian Radar Banten, Jakarta: Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Agama Jakarta, 2008.

Bernard, H. Russel, Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 1998.

Bertrand, Jacques, Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Bessiere, Kiesler, Kraut S. R. E., dan Boneva, “Effects of Internet Use and Social Resources on Changes in Depression, Information, Communication Society,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008.

Bull, Michael, Sounding out the City: Personal Stereos and the

Management of Everyday Life, Oxford and New York: Berg, 2000.

Borgatti, Stephen P., dan Kidwell, “Network Theory,” dalam John Scott and Peter J. Carrington (ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis, London: Thousand Oaks, SAGE Publications, 2011.

Davey, C.J., et. al. New media and the courts the current status and a look at the future. A report of the new media committee of the conference of court public information officers dikutip dari, diakses pada 10 Desember 2016.

Ernest Cassier, Manusia dan Kebudayaan, Jakarta: Gramedia, 1992.

Gitelman, L., and Pingree, B.G., (eds.), New media, 1740–1915, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2003.

Howes, David, “Scent, Sound and Synaesthesia. Intersensorality and Material Culture Theory,” Christopher Tilley, et al. (eds.), Handbook of Material Culture, London, Thousand Oaks and New Dehli: SAGE Publications, 2006.

Irwansyah, “Potensi Keretakan Hubungan Sosial Muslim-Buddhis: Kasus Konflik Patung Buddha di Kota Tanjungbalai Sumatera Utara,” Analisa, Vol. 20, No. 02, 2013.

Juergensmeyer, Mark, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence, Oakland California: University of California Press, 2017.

Kaplan, A.M. dan Haenlein, Michael, “Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media,” Business Horizons, Vol. 53, 2010.

Lim, M., “Many Clicks but Little Sticks: Social Media Activism in

Indonesia”, Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2014.

_______“The Internet and Everyday Life in Indonesia: A New Moral Panic?” Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia, Vol. 169, No. 1, 2013.

Lewis, M. dan Haviland-Jones, J.M., Handbook of Emotions. Second Edition, New York: The Guilford Press, 2000.

Lister, M.,, New Media: a Critical Introduction, London: Routledge, 2010.

L. Gitelman, Always Already New Media, History, and the Data of Culture, London: The MIT Press, 2006.

Mayfield A., What is social media? dalam, diakses pada 10 Februari 2017.

Murray, Schafer R., The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World, Rochester: Destiny Books, 2011.

Mujani, Saiful, Muslim Demokrat: Islam, Budaya Demokrasi, dan Partisipasi Politik di Indonesia Pasca-Orde Baru, Jakarta: Gramedia-PPIM-Freedom Institute, 2007.

Nugroho, Yanuar dan Syarief, Sofie Shinta, Beyond Click-Activism? New Media and Political Processes in Contemporary Indonesia, Jakarta: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2012.

Porta, Donatella Della, Can Democracy be Daved? Participation, Deliberation,and Social Movement, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2013.

Pearce, Susanna, “Religious Rage: A Quantitative Analysis of the Intensity of Religious Conflicts,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2005.

Pohjonen Matti & Udupa, Sahana, “Extreme Speech Online: A

Anthropological Critique of Hate Speech Debates,” International

Journal of Communication, Vol. 11, 2017.

Rule, James B., Theories of Civil Violence, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988.

Sidel, John T., Riots, Pogroms, and Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia, Singapore: NUS Press, 2007.

Sujono Soekamto, Sosioligi Suatu Pengantar, Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2001.

Sofjan, Dicky, Why Muslim Participate in Jihad: An Empirical Survey on Islamic Religiosity in Indonesia and Iran, Bandung: Mizan, 2006.

Steffano, Allievi, Mosques in Europe; Why a Solution has Become a Problem, London: Alliance Publishing Trust, 2010.

Stokes, Jane, How to Do Media and Cultural Studies, London: Sage, 2006.

“Tanjung Balai Rusuh, 8 Vihara Dibakar”, dalam diakses pada 23 Agustus 2016.

Thomas, Julian, Time, Culture and Identity: An Interpretative Archaeology, London and New York: Routledge 1996.

Wawancara dengan AS di Tanjung Balai, Sumatera Utara 10 Agustus 2016.

Wawancara dengan Z di Tanjung Balai, Sumatera Utara 11 Agustus 2016.

Wawancara dengan FP di Tanjung Balai, Sumatera Utara 11 Agustus 2016.

Wawancara dengan SS di Tanjung Balai, Sumatera Utara 9 Agustus 2016.

Wawancara dengan AKBP ASG di Tanjung Balai, Sumatera Utara 6 Agustus 2016.

Wimmer, Roger D., dan Dominick, Mass Media Research an Introduction Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2014.

Zielinski, S., Deep Time of the Media: Toward an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Creative Commons Licence

Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License