AbstractThis paper attempts to examine the leadership competence of Islamic Religious Education (Pendidikan Agama Islam/PAI) teachers in the areas of Islamic theology and Morality with the qualification of Bachelor Degree (S1) and pesantren-assigned teachers (guru tugas pesantren) graduated from IslamicSenior High School and factors that influence it. PAI teachers with the qualification of S1 or those who have pedagogical competence are believed to have higher leadership competencies, and vice versa,pesantren-assigned teachers with secondary level education qualification, have lower leadership competence. The results show a contrasting real picture of the phenomenon. This reality is interesting to examine further in order to find the pattern to increase the competence of teachers in accordance with the needs of madrasahs/schools. This study uses a combination of methods, quantitative supported by the analysis of qualitative data (mix-methods) by taking the population of Islamic Theology and Morality teachers who teach in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI). The results of the analysis illustrate the average value of the competence of PAI teachers with S1 qualification which is 55.8333 and pesantren-assigned teachers which is 51.4000 with the mean of difference 4.43333. Although there is an average difference, it is not so significant. The level of significance is only 0.040 which means <0.05. Based on the statistical calculation, there is no difference in leadership competence among S1 graduated teachers and pesantren-assigned teachers. Qualitative data analysis shows that there are structural factors that negatively affect the achievement of the competence of PAI teachers with S1 qualification. On the other hand, the positive achievement of leadership competence of pesantren-assigned teachers is influenced by the success of technical guidance, strict recruitment, and habituation as peer teacher while they were in pesantren. There is a relative deprivation phenomenon that emerged among PAI teachers who have had academic competence. The various structural policy packages issued by the government that is ideally projected to improve competence, including the leadership competence of the teachers, have a negative impact in the implementation realm. In particular, policies highlight more on improving learning administrative governance aspects which result in a decrease of teachers creative ability in learning.
Agama, Departemen, Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Program Peningkatan Kualifikasi S-1 Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah dan Pendidikan Agama Islam pada Sekolah, Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Islam, 2009.
Agbiboa, Daniel Egiegba, “Why Boko Haram Exists: The Relative
Deprivation Perspective”, African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review,
Vol. 3, No. 1, 2013.
Ayegba, Usman Solomon,“Unemployment and Poverty as Sources and Consequence of Insecurity in Nigeria: The Boko Haram Insurgency Revisited”, African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, Vol. 9, No. 3, Maret, 2015.
Burgess, Jan and Bates, Donna, Other Duties as Assigned, Tips, Tools, and Techniques for Expert Teacher Leadership, Alexandria: Association for Curriculum Development, 2009.
Creswell, John W., Educational Research, Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualititative Research, Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2002.
Danielson, Charlotte, Teacher Leadership that Strengthens Professional Practice, Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2006.
Depdiknas, Laporan Monitoring dan Evaluasi (Monev) Sertifikasi Guru dalam Jabatan Melalui Portofolio Tahun 2006-2007, Jakarta: Tim Independen Konsorsium Sertifikasi Guru (KSG)-Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008.
_______, Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Profesi Guru, Buku 1, Pedoman Pengelolaan Pengembangan Keprofesian Berkelanjutan (PKB), Jakarta: Biro Kepegawaian-Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2011.
________, Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Profesi Guru, Buku 4: Pedoman Kegiatan Pengembangan Keprofesian Berkelanjutan (PKB) dan Angka Kreditnya, Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan-Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2010.
Demir, Kamile, “The Effect of Organizational Trust on the Culture of
Teacher Leadership in Primary Schools”, Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15 (3), Juni 2015.
Dunia, Bank, Mentransformasi Tenaga Pendidikan Indonesia, Volume I: Ringkasan Eksekutif, Jakarta: The World Bank Office Jakarta, 2011.
___________, Mentransformasi Tenaga Pendidikan Indonesia, Volume II: Dari Pendidikan Prajabatan hingga ke Masa Purnabakti: Membangun dan Mempertahankan Angkatan Kerja yang Berkualitas Tinggi, Efisien, dan Termotivasi, Jakarta: Kantor Bank Dunia Jakarta, 2011.
N. Parrillo, Vincent, (ed.) Encyclopedia of Social Problems, California: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2008.
Fry, Louis W., “Toward A Theory of Ethical and Spiritual Well-being
and Corporate Social Responsibility through Spiritual Leadership”,
R.A. Giacalone and C.L. Jurkiewicz (eds.), Positive Psychology in Business Ethics and Corporate Responsibility, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 2005.
Harris, Alma and Muijs, Daniel, Improving Schools Through Teacher Leadership, New York: Open University Press, 2005.
A. Darity Jr., William (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 7, New York: The Gale Group, 2008.
Kilinç, Ali Çağatay, “Examining the Relationship between Teacher
Leadership and School Climate”, Educational Sciences: Theory &
Practice, 14 (5), 2014.
Kıranlı, Semra, “Teachers’ and School Administrators’ Perceptions
and Expectations on Teacher Leadership”, International Journal of
Instruction, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2013.
Murphy, Joseph, Connecting Teacher Leadership and School Improvement, California: Corwin Press, 2005.
Saleh, Alam, “Relative Deprivation Theory, Nationalism, Ethnicity and Identity Conflicts”, Geopolitics Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2013.
Sukmadinata, Nana Syaodih, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, Bandung: Penerbit Rosda Karya, 2013.
Sumpeno, Wahyudin, Menjadi Fasilitator Efektif, Kiat-Kiat Memberdayakan Masyarakat, Solo: Yayasan Duta Awam, 2004.
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.